Highlights from the Reddit thread “What are the most mindblowing recent advancements people still don’t know about?”:
Nanotube Salt Filters:
Nano[tube] salt filters. Once they bring the price down, living near the ocean will mean limitless virtually free fresh water, for the first time in human history.
This will completely change the world
one scientific source [on nanotube salt filters] is here but might not be open access. The reason that it’s hard to find is because they’re not nanofibers, the whole idea is they’re tubes. Here is a more popsci summary
Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors:
Nuclear reactors. Specifically, molten salt reactors (MSRs). MORE specifically, Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactors (LFTRs, pronounced “lifters”).
Imagine a nuclear power plant that
- can’t blow up
- can’t have fuel stolen to make a nuclear bomb
- produces zero carbon emissions
- produces almost ZERO nuclear waste
- of the waste it produces, it lasts on the order of 100 years (as opposed to 100,000 years)
- the byproduct of mining the fuel for this reactor is precious earth metals used in solar cells and wind turbines (and currently bought from China, who owns >80% of the world’s supply of rare earth metals)
This is the future. MSRs have been proven to work since the 1960s (the MSRBE [Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Experiment] at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee). The first LFTR may go online in 3-5 years in Alabama.
Edit: Probably should have realized the bee’s nest I poked with this comment. I’ll try answering questions to the best of my abilities! I’m not a nuclear engineer, but I have experience/degrees in health physics (radiation protection) and a little bit of nuclear environmental engineering. I’ve also done a few specialized research proposals on MSRs, but if other NucEs want to step up they can.
Double Edit: /u/ProjectGO commented below about the “can’t blow up” portion of MSRs/LFTRs (also known as “passive safety”). I’ve copied his post verbatim here, but if you find it interesting please make sure to upvote his comment appropriately.
At the bottom of the reactor chamber, there’s a plug made out of salt. The plug is constantly cooled by pipes running refrigerant around it. If anything happens that causes the plant to lose power (for example, getting hit by a tsunami) the cooling system stops working. The molten salt in the reactor melts the plug, and drains out into a number of storage tanks, all sized to hold too little fuel to sustain the reaction.
I believe the term for it is “walk-away safe”, since you could literally walk away and it would safely shut down on it’s own if something went wrong.
HT: Tyler Cowen